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HANDLES & FEET
PLYWOOD with Ed Walker
PODLETS with John Bolt
TEXTURING with Paul Reeves
THREE LEGGED STOOL with Paul Reeves
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Demonstration of Podlet turning
Thu, 19th December 2019 at MWCC Club Night
Podlets are a name generally given to small
thin wooden flower-like structures.
The choicest wood to select is wet/green, is of reasonable
length to enable a degree of bend of the stalk; most with light or dark colours
work well . Natural edges look fine but it would not be a problem if
all/some is missing (as explained below).
Another consideration is that the base be heavy enough to stably support the finished piece.
Bear in mind :-
● The piece will start off being supported between centres and that both ends will need to be squared off.
● The roundest end is better for the petal & supported in the tailstock; the drive end will eventually be trimmed as per your chuck spigot for supporting while hollowing out the petal and turning the stalk.
● Ideally, for strength reasons, you want to avoid the pith anywhere inside the finished stalk. Choosing a piece with an off-centred pith (eg horizontal branch with a large area of reaction wood above) would be ideal but otherwise, purposely plan to offset the centres such that the pith lies about 10mm from the stalk and so will end up being cut away.
● The tailstock will be removed for hollowing the petal but needs to support the piece when turning the stalk;
so a ring or cone live revolving centre would be the best to use.
While in between centres, start off at a slow
turning speed as the piece will probably be out of balance.
Keeping the bark on the top end of the petal, even off the rest of the piece, which will gradually allow you to up the speed.
Start a shallow hollowing of the petal & form a spigot for your chuck at the drive end.
Mount on your chuck & continue hollowing with a smaller gouge (to avoid excessive vibration without the support of the tailstock) to a depth of at least an inch.
Once the inside is completed, finish with
abrasives before continuing with the stalk & base.
Wet/Green wood tends to become fluffy and clogs the abrasive - problem reduced with wet sanding (i.e. dip abrasive into water)
Tailstock now returned into position but with
some matting material to protect the contact area within the petal.
Trim back the bark towards the lip of the petal; if one side of the lip ends up too thick (perhaps due to avoiding the pith), an option is to reduce the protruding edge back into the round and then decorate the edge with a pyrographic tip.
Working towards the headstock about an inch
at a time, turn out the stalk and sand finish as you work along while the
strength of the piece is supported from the drive end. John used a
homemade Velcro-ed piece of plywood with various grits in order to even out the
stalk as he progressed, making sure (where the stalk was particularly thin) to
support the opposite side with his fingers.
Plan ahead where the piece will be parted off
and thus where the start of the base should be.
The piece will look better with the base being a smaller diameter than the petal.
Reduce the base to desired diameter and shape to blend the curves.
Wet wood will naturally dry out and distort
For a more controlled process, one can microwave the piece with a heavy microwave-safe mug/bowl resting on the stalk.
After the one time he tried this method & the lady in the house expressed concerns of smells from the kitchen, John now uses steam from a kettle on a gas ring applied for about 4 or 5 minutes via a hose with a split in one end.
There is a helpful video on line <HERE>
Demonstration of Texturing
Thu, 21st November 2019 at MWCC Club Night
When Paul asked his audience what they regarded as texturing, a few voiced it meant spoiling a lovely flat surface!
Paul had in mind something like, "Enhance a surface with interest or appeal."
Not only visually but (perhaps more importantly) in a tactile way.
Putting on Texture improves a plain grain wood with contrast. For example, applying a band of indentations about an inch below the outside rim of a bowl (where one's hands will invariably grip the piece) adds to the enjoyment.
There are four ways of applying texture :
● Both held tool and piece stationary;
● With the piece turning and a simple tool on the tool rest;
● Using a rotary tool with the piece held still;
● With the piece turning and using a rotary tool.
It is not necessary to have lots of texturing tools.
Simple Tools include :
Ball Pein Hammer
Straight Metal Bar with a domed head (Tip: avoid any with sharp edges)
Hole Punch (Tip: smaller punches make colour tints look better)
40 Grit Abrasive! (Tip: but keep it moving)
More Sophisticated Hand Tools :
Coarse Hand Knurl
Sorby Texturing & Spiralling Tools
Henry Taylor Decorating Elf
Power Tools include :
Angle Grinder (eg Proxxon)
Electric Drill (eg Dremel)
With the percussive tools, indent edges should meet while flat areas between indents be kept as small as possible. It is hard to be random but for the best effect, all indents should be kept of similar size and the same should apply to the spaces between. To keep depressions even, side grain areas will require slightly softer hits while end grain areas will require slightly heavier. Hole Punches & Metal Bars tend to need harder hits, particularly with harder woods.
When applying a band of texture, it is helpful to define borders for the band with grooves. This is achieved with a round skew, a parting tool or even the point of a gouge; all placed so as to mask any marks outside the originally intended border line. Any wayward indents remaining outside might be recovered with judicial use of woodturners spittle!
A change of the lathe speed will result in different effects. With powered tools, the higher the lathe speed, the less regular the texturing while with the piece turning slowly or stationary, the cleaner the effect. The opposite applies with the speed of the cutting tool - the faster the speed of the drill, normally the neater the finish.
A common decorative texture is Fluting.
These are best created using powered tools with accessories such as Ball Cutter, Chain Cutter, Flat Disc or Power Carver.
If applied with the lathe turning - present the tool in line to the rotation of the piece.
If applied with the lathe off - move the tool in the direction against the cutter's rotation.
The Power Carver tends to produce the smoothest fluting.
Once your texturing has been applied, you will probably need to tidy up the
edges and clear away the 'hairy' bits.
Whether using a bristle brush by hand or a rotary tool with a brush attachment, move the brush in the same direction as the line of pattern.
A Blow Torch can be used to burn off hairy bits but should only be used if leaving as burnt decoration or if colouring with something which cover up the inevitable scorch marks.
(photos by Mark Codling) <to top>
2019 - Demo 3
Working Plywood with Ed Walker
It was surprising to learn that the Egyptians used plywood some 3500 years ago; the Royal Navy used several laminated layers of hand-sawn veneers at the end of the 18th Century; and in 1847 Sweden, Immanuel Nobel (father of Alfred) realised that several layers of wood bonded together was stronger than a single thick layer and subsequently, he invented the rotary lathe to exploit plywood's industrial potential.
Ed went on to describe the types of plywood in increasing price : Softwood made from Cedar, Firs or Spruces; Hardwood from Oak, Beech or Mahogany; Tropical from wood as the name suggests; Aircraft grade incorporating adhesives resistant to heat and humidity (most memorably used in the WW2 De Havilland Mosquito aircraft); Decorative grade made from thin veneers of attractive woods; and Marine grade made from tropical hardwood with few defects and waterproof glue.
It was startling to see how many holes and flaws occurred within the cheaper grades, all requiring copious amounts of superglue and wood dust to stabilize. It seemed as if the better quality plywood grades wouldn't be much more expensive than the Softwood plus all the superglue!
Ed discussed particular aspects to consider when working with plywood :-
►Let your glue have plenty of time to really set before turning, eg overnight;
►Coloured plastics may be used as laminates but roughen the plastic sheets for the superglue to adhere;
►If using a doughnut ring with your chuck, glue an appropriately sized sheet of ply under the ring for a flat & secure contact;
►If using a tail stock, avoid a pointed centre splitting the laminates of the ply by either gluing a sacrificial piece of wood/ply for the pointed centre to engage or else a ring type revolving centre;
►Gouges will blunt quickly but shear scraping works well;
►With plastic as laminates, watch buffing speed as too much heat will soften it;
►Axminster supply resin-impregnated coloured wood veneers.
The September 2019 Competition was set for a turned piece(s) comprising at least 50% of a ply component.
2019 - Demo 4
Handles & Feet with Graham Turner
Handles & feet on wood-turned pieces benefit from being curved
Apart from carving, which is not a technique many woodturners have mastered, the Turner's solutions were twofold :-
turning a hollow form, then band-sawing into segments to produce several identical pieces;
(taking a leaf out of the last demonstration with Ed Walker), creating a laminated piece and steaming into shape against a prepared shape former.
A practical wood for steaming is Ash. Graham had built up
laminates from 2.5mm Ash veneers (referred to as Constructional Veneers)
interspersed with 0.7mm Wenge veneer for contrasting colour.
Photos 2 & 3 below demonstrate two differently shaped formers.
Both produce flattened curves, but if desired, could be mounted between centres and their side edges rounded off.
Graham's example was a flat offset base (as in photo 3) with a cylindrical handle subsequently rounded off between its centres (as in photo 4).
Great care must be taken to ensure the flat base doesn't foul the tail stock while turning the handle.
The turner's fingers are also vulnerable so Graham prefers to put his guiding hand under his gouge rather than over the tool rest.
Steaming was accomplished in Mrs Turner's Vegetable Steamer for
about 5 minutes immediately before bending and clamping against it's shape
(It wasn't made clear whether Mrs Turner was aware of this usage but Graham did wash it out afterwards; so that will be all right then!)
Graham then demonstrated a method for producing feet for a
Always enjoying humour in his turning, Graham took the literal sense of feet.
Starting with a piece of Walnut with a hole through one end using a 25mm Forstner, he turned a lip at the tail end before hollowing out to leave about a 10mm thick wall, (photos 5 & 6).
Using an indexed chuck to delineate every 30° so that a bandsaw could cut an individual leg (photo 7), a parting tool cut was made just above the depth of the hollow so that each segment could be easily broken off the round, (photo 8).
Each 'foot' was placed between a ring drive centre (for better drive support) & tail stock to shape the leg
A microplane was used to round off the toe & heel areas before back to the bandsaw in order to form individual toes, (photo 9)
A similar process can be employed for making handles that connect at both ends.
Photo 10 shows the various stages.
With careful design, this system allows for the connecting ends to line up flush with the outside of your turned hollowed vessel to help with a larger gluing surface.
Other options allow different handle shapes; for example, double joint at the top with a single connect at the bottom, (see photo 11)
It is important to consider the direction of the wood grain in order to preserve
Handles designed with large curves are likely to have a weak section of end grain somewhere while shallow curved handles with grain from one end to the other will have more integral strength.
Choice of close grain woods like Walnut, Maple also contribute to strength.
The November Competition was set for a turned piece(s) comprising an attached handle and/or foot.